Glossary

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4/0
Four colors on one side of the sheet of paper and zero colors on the other side. top ∧
 
4/2
Four colors on one side of the sheet of paper and two colors on the other side. top ∧
 
Accordion fold
A term used for two or more parallel folds that open like an accordion. Also called Z-Fold. top ∧
 
Against the grain
Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper. Also called crossgrain. top ∧
 
Anti-offset Spray
In printing, dry spray of finely powdered starch used on press to prevent wet ink from transferring from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next sheet. This also separates the sheets on a micro level so oxygen can react with the ink to enhance ink drying. top ∧
 
Aqueous coating
A clear, fast-drying water-based coating that is used to protect printed pieces. It provides a high-gloss or matte surface that deters dirt and fingerprints. top ∧
 
Basic size
In inches, 25 x 38 for book papers, 20 x 26 for cover paper, 22 ½ x 28 ½ x 35 for bristols, 25 ½ x 30 ½ for index. top ∧
 
Basis weight
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for the particular grade; e.g., 500 sheets 25” x 38” of 50-lb. book paper weight 50 pounds. top ∧
 
Blanket
In offset printing, a rubber-surfaced fabric that is clamped around a cylinder, to which the image is transferred from the plate, and from which it is transferred to the paper. Some digital printers use a blanket or transfer unit. top ∧
 
Bleed
An extra amount of printed image that extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page. top ∧
 
Brochure
A multi-page pamphlet bound in booklet form. top ∧
 
C1S
Coated 1 side top ∧
 
C2S
Coated 2 sides top ∧
 
CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black)
The Subtractive process colors used in color printing. top ∧
 
Caliper
The thickness of paper, in thousandths of an inch (mils). In board, however, it is expressed as “points”. top ∧
 
Coated paper
Paper having a surface coating that produces a smooth finish. Surface appearances may vary from eggshell to glossy.  top ∧
 
Coating
An emulsion, varnish, or lacquer applied over a printed surface to protect it. top ∧
 
Color Management
Broadly defined as a system of hardware, software, and procedures that are calibrated to best ensure color accuracy and repeatability throughout the design and production process.  top ∧
 
Color proof
Simulations of an eventual output of a reproduction device. Because it is costly to proof on a press, a number of methods are used to proof off-line. In digital printing, a proof is a run of one. top ∧
 
Continuous tone
An image that contains gradient tones from black to white. top ∧
 
Contrast
The tonal gradation between the highlights, middle tones, and shadows in an original or reproduction. top ∧
 
Cover page
A term applied to papers mostly used for the covers for catalogs, brochures, booklets, and similar pieces.  top ∧
 
Densitometer
In printing, a reflection densitometer is used to measure and control the density of color inks on the substrate. Densitometry may be built into reproduction devices.  top ∧
 
Die
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing. Also called a counter-die. top ∧
 
Diecutting
The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes for labels, boxes and containers from printed sheets. top ∧
 
Die-stamping
An intaglio process for the production of letterheads, business cards, etc., printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel. top ∧
 
Digital printing
Printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems. Includes toner, ink-jet, and other processes. top ∧
 
Dot
Smallest digital imaging or screening element. Common usage does not clearly differentiate between dots and spots. top ∧
 
Dot Gain
In printing, a defect in which dots print larger than they should, causing darker tones or stronger colors.  top ∧
 
Dots per inch (DPI)
A measure of the resolution of a screen image or printed page. top ∧
 
Dummy
A preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and test as they may appear in the final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form, and style of a piece of printing. A dummy presents the look and feel of a printed product prior to production. top ∧
 
Embossed finish
Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather, or some other texture pattern. top ∧
 
Embossing
Impressing an image by forming the paper using a die that is cast in the shape of the image you want to create. When pressure is applied, the paper takes the form of the die. top ∧
 
Enamel
A term applied to a coated paper or to a special coating material on a paper. top ∧
 
E-Print
Printed text of an article reformatted to digital text for online use. Can also include videos and custom, time-specific articles for online audiences. top ∧
 
Finish size
The size of a printed piece will be once finished. For ex, a tri-folded brochure with a flat size of 11” x 81/2”, will have a finishing size of about 3.6267” x 81/2”. top ∧
 
Flat size
The size of a folded printed piece when unfolded. For ex, a tri-folded brochure with a finishing size of about 3.6267” x 81/2”, will have a flat size of 11” x81/2”. top ∧
 
Flush cover
A cover that has been trimmed on the same size as the inside text pages. top ∧
 
Format
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product. top ∧
 
Fountain
Solution In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum, and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink. top ∧
 
Gang run
Two or more printing jobs run simultaneously on the same press sheet. Large sheets of paper are shared by several jobs and after printing are cut into separate jobs. top ∧
 
Grain
The direction in which most fibers lie that corresponds with the direction in which the paper is made on a paper machine. top ∧
 
Grey balance
The dot values or densities of cyan, magenta, and yellow that produce a neutral gray. top ∧
 
Grey scale
A strip of standard grey tones (in analog or digital form), ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained. top ∧
 
Gripper edge
The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. top ∧
 
Grippers
In sheetfed printing presses, metal fingers that clamp on paper and control its flow as it passes through the press. top ∧
 
Gutter
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edge. top ∧
 
Halftone
The reproduction of continuous-tone images, through a special screening process, that converts the image into dots of various sizes and equal spacing between centers, or dots of equal size with variable spacing between them, or some combination of them. top ∧
 
Hard proof
A proof on paper. top ∧
 
Head margin
The white space above the first line on a page. top ∧
 
Hickeys
Spots or imperfections in the printing due to dirt, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc. top ∧
 
Hue
The main attribute of a color that distinguishes it from other colors.  top ∧
 
Imposition
The arrangement of pages for printing on a press sheet in such a way that they appear in correct order when the sheet is folded.  top ∧
 
Ink-jet printing
A plateless method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled signals to produce images. top ∧
 
Ink coverage
A percentage indicating the inked area of the paper.  Also called dot area, it’s the ratio of area covered by ink divided into the area measured.  top ∧
 
Insert
A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.  top ∧
 
Jog
To align sheets of paper into a compact, even pile. top ∧
 
Kerning
In typesetting, subtracting space between two characters, moving them closer together. Negative letterspacing can apply to two letters (kerning) or to any other group of letters.  top ∧
 
Lamination
A plastic film coating bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. top ∧
 
Large format
A term that describes the printing of large sized substrates.  Printed pieces would include large posters, POP (point of purchase) signage and banner.  The printers that are used are typically inkjet or IRIS printers.  top ∧
 
Layout
The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. top ∧
 
Leading (pronounced ledding)
In composition, the distance between lines of type measured in points.  top ∧
 
M
Abbreviation for quantity of a 1,000. top ∧
 
Machine coated
Paper that is coated on one or two sides on a paper machine. top ∧
 
Makeready
In printing, all work done to set up a press for printing.  top ∧
 
Matte Finish
Dull paper finish without gloss or luster. top ∧
 
Mottle
The spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas. top ∧
 
Newsprint
Paper that is used for printing newspaper. top ∧
 
Non-impact printer
An electronic device such as a copier, laser or ink-jet printer that creates images on a surface without contacting it.  top ∧
 
Oblong
A booklet or catalog bound on the shorter dimension. top ∧
 
Offset
Commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. Also called offset lithography. top ∧
 
Opacity
That property of paper that minimizes the show-through of printing from the back side or the next sheet. top ∧
 
Overhang cover
A cover larger in size than the pages it encloses. top ∧
 
Overrun
Additional copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. top ∧
 
Overprinting
Double printing; printing over an area that already has been printed. top ∧
 
Paper count
The total number of pages in a book or other publication including blanks. top ∧
 
Pagination
The consecutive numbering to indicate the proper order of the pages either electronic or printed. top ∧
 
PDF (Portable Document File)
Adobe’s PDF is a universal electronic file format, modeled after the PostScropt language and is device and resolution Independent.  A PDF document can be viewed, navigated, and printed from any computer to almost any printer regardless of the fonts or software programs used to create the original.  top ∧
 
Perfect bind
A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a wraparound cover. top ∧
 
Perfecting
Printing on both sides of the paper in one pass through the press. Not all presses are equipped to perfect. top ∧
 
Pigment
The fine solid particles used to give inks color, transparency, or opacity. top ∧
 
Pixel Short for “picture element”
is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest, addressable element in a display device; so it is the smallest, controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.  top ∧
 
PMS (Pantone Matching System)
Color charts that have more than 700 preprinted color patches of blended inks, used to identify, display or define special branded colors. Also called spot color. top ∧
 
PostScript
A page description language in the electronic and desktop publishing area. Developed by Adobe Systems, it can handle both text and graphics. A PostScript file is a purely code-based description of a page. top ∧
 
Prefighting
The evaluation and analysis of every component in a file needed to produce a printing job. Prefight confirms the data being submitted, color gamut, color breaks, and any art required (illustration, photo etc.), plus layout files, fonts, image file, proofs, page size, print driver, cropmarks, etc.  top ∧
 
Process color
The subtractive primaries: CMYK in four color process printing top ∧
 
Printer spread
Single pages laid out on a press sheet in a particular order so that they come out in correct sequence when folded, bound, and cut. top ∧
 
Raster image processor (RIP)
A component used in a printing system which produces a raster image also known as a bitmap.  The bitmap is then sent to a printing device for output. The input may be a page description in a high-level page description language such as PostScript, PDF format, XPS or another bitmap of higher or lower resolution than the output device. top ∧
 
Reader spread
Looking at pages in order, from first to last. top ∧
 
Ream
Five hundred sheets of paper. top ∧
 
Registration
The method of correlating overlapping colors on one single image. top ∧
 
Registration marks
Crosses or other targets applied to original copy. Used for register of two or more colors in process printing. top ∧
 
Reprint
A copy of an article that has been published in a well-recognized magazine. top ∧
 
Resolution
Ability of an input device to record, or an output device to reproduce the fine detail of an image. Resolution concerns how closely spots can be placed, and also whether gray levels can be distinguished. For output devices, resolution depends on addressability, bit-depth and mark size. 200 dpi and above is ideal. top ∧
 
RGB (red, green, and blue)
The primary additive colors used in display devices and scanner. Commonly used to refer to the color pace, mixing system, or monitor in color computer graphics. top ∧
 
Right-angle fold
A term used for two or more folds that are 90 degree angles to each other. top ∧
 
Running footer
A page number or other text repeated at the bottom of each page. top ∧
 
Running head
A headline or title repeated at the tip of each page. top ∧
 
Saddle stitch
The binding of a book using wire staples on the binding edge to hold the book together. top ∧
 
Score
To impress or indent a mark in the printed paper to make folding easier and reducing the likelihood of cracking the paper. top ∧
 
Screen ruling
The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen. top ∧
 
Self cover
A cover of the same paper as inside text pages. top ∧
 
Serif
The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of letters in typefaces. San serif mean no serif. top ∧
 
Set-off
In presswork, when the ink of a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset.  top ∧
 
Sheet fed
A printing press that prints individual sheets of paper as opposed to rolls. top ∧
 
Sheetwise
To print one side of a sheet of paper with one plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate using same gripper and opposite side guide. top ∧
 
Shingling
In image assembly and layouts, the center or gutter margin is varied according to the position of the page in the signature and the bulk of the paper.  top ∧
 
Separations
In four color process printing, a continuous tone image that is separated into four different colors, CMYK, enabling it to be printed. top ∧
 
Signature
Printed sheet folded at least once, possible many times to become part of a book, magazine or other publication. top ∧
 
Soft proof
A proof that is an image on a screen. top ∧
 
Specifications
A detailed description of a print order. Detail include: quantity, number of pages, colors, color types, paper type, finish size, bindery details and any other special details etc. top ∧
 
Spine
The back of a bound book connecting the two covers. Also called backbone. top ∧
 
Spiral binding
A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through holes punched along the binding side. top ∧
 
Spot color
Colors that are mixed in batches ane are indentifies by a number (ie. PMS200). The number can also be followed by a C(Coated) or U(Uncoated). Also known as Pantone or PMS colors. top ∧
 
Spot varnish
Varnish used to highlight a specific area of the printed sheet.  top ∧
 
Stock
Paper or other material to be printed on. top ∧
 
Stochastic Screening
A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing.  Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.  top ∧
 
Substrate
Any material that can be printed on, such as paper, plastic, and fabric. top ∧
 
Toner
Imaging material also called digital inks, used in plateless printing systems. top ∧
 
Transparency Color positive film
In digital imaging, a computer capability to make graphics and images transparent so that underlying graphics and images show through.  top ∧
 
Trapping
The ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink over dry ink.  Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.  top ∧
 
Trim marks
Marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page. top ∧
 
Unit
Refers to the combination of inking plate, and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has four printing units each with its own inking, plate, and impression functions. top ∧
 
-Up
In printing, two-up, three-up, etc., refers to imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.  top ∧
 
UV coating
A coating that can be applied over ink on paper and dried by exposure to UV radiation. UV coatings can be formulated to a wide variety of glass ranges. top ∧
 
UV inks
Solventless ink that are cured by UV radiation. They are used extensively in screen printing, narrow web letterpress, and flexographic printing. top ∧
 
Varnish
A thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance. top ∧
 
Vellum Finish
In papermaking, a toothy finish that is relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration.  top ∧
 
Watermark
A translucent mark placed in the background of a printed piece. Some use watermarks for denoting ownership and originality. top ∧
 
Web
A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing. top ∧
 
Web press
A press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. top ∧
 
Wire-o Binding
A continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the binding side of a booklet.  top ∧
 
With the grain
Folding or feeding paper into a press with the grain of the paper parallel to the blade of the folder or the axis of the impression cylinder. top ∧
 
Work-and-tumble
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side. Also called work-and-flop.  top ∧
 
Work-and-turn
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn it over from left to right and print the second side using the same gripper and plate but opposite side guide. top ∧